Using Radiocarbon Dating to Establish the Age of Iron-Based Artifacts
Please update your billing information in My WorthPoint to reactivate your account! No comments This hand-made screw has obvious signs of its origin. Note the flat spot on the shaft near the head. That is a remnant of the square nail stock. The thread varies is depth and pitch all over the shaft and the shaft has no point. The head is not quite round and the hand cut slot is off center—all signs of hand work.
Depending on the object, the first and last steps may be unnecessary. Checking the Lacquer Prior to cleaning a lacquered brass item you should determine if you should first remove the lacquer. Lacquer is a thin, clear coating that is sprayed or painted onto an object to protect it from oxygen, thereby delaying the development of tarnish.
Lacquer that is chipped or cracked may need to be removed to make the object look its best. To remove lacquer put the item in a pot of boiling water containing teaspoons each of baking soda and washing soda not detergent. Let the piece boil for up to a minute.
How to Clean Brass The basic process of how to clean brass consists of three steps: checking its lacquer, cleaning the item and replacing lacquer. Depending on .
Metalwork is perhaps the most continuous and best-documented artistic medium from Iran in the Islamic period. At times, echoing the forms of more ephemeral or less costly materials such as ceramics, metalwork from Iran and adjacent lands served a wide variety of utilitarian functions. These were nonetheless luxury wares that absorbed the creative energy of some of the best artists and reflected the main artistic trends and the tastes of successive dynasties.
Written sources are an important means of documenting this medium. In addition to literary works, primarily geographical texts in Arabic and Persian, which provide information on centers of production and sources of metal ores Allen, , pp. Iranian metalwork is therefore an important resource for understanding the art Iran in the Islamic period in particular and the history of Islamic art in general. Silver and gold plate, especially the former, provide a well-documented art form in Sasanian Iran and in pre-Islamic western Central Asia.
Sasanian silver vessels bowls, dishes, cups, ewers, and bottles , often decorated with imperial symbolism such as the royal hunt Harper and Meyers, pp. This can explain the existence of a large group of mainly silver gilt objects that continue and readapt the Sasanian style. As the new Islamic polity asserted control over Iran and the territories to its east, many of the same metalwork forms and techniques continued to develop and evolve, while much of the representational imagery gradually lost its original meaning.
It seems likely that objects fashioned of both silver and gold persisted as status symbols for the new aristocracy. It is therefore often difficult to pinpoint where Sasanian art ends and Islamic art begins in the first centuries of Muslim rule. The situation with contemporary base metal is similar, but these objects also stand more obviously in a definable relationship to Islamic art.
Carillons Carillons are musical instruments made of at least 23 conventional tower bells which have been tuned so that they can be played together in harmony. There are two varieties: Traditional carillons use a keyboard with baton-shaped manual keys, a pedalboard, and “tracker” action direct mechanical connection for precise dynamic control and dynamic musical expression. Most have no capability whatsoever for musical expression. Still, they contain real bells, unlike the various electronic devices that attempt always unsuccessfully to imitate bells.
Some traditional carillons are equipped with additional mechanisms of various kinds for automatic play.
The Nasser D Khalili Collection of Islamic Art holds a uniquely diverse collection of objects related to science, tools and magic; ranging from basic utilitarian objects, such as glass cupping devices dating from as early as the seventh century, to the more complex and intricately detailed tools of the 19 th and 20th centuries, such as astrolabes, quadrants and qiblah compasses.
Download the PDF Figure 1. This door and transom suggest the richness of 19th century leaded glass. Glass is a highly versatile medium. In its molten state, it can be spun, blown, rolled, cast in any shape, and given any color. Once cooled, it can be polished, beveled, chipped, etched, engraved, or painted. Stained and leaded glass can be found throughout America in a dazzling variety of colors, patterns, and textures Figure 1.
It appears in windows, doors, ceilings, fanlights, sidelights, light fixtures, and other glazed features found in historic buildings Figure 2. It appears in all building types and architectural styles—embellishing the light in a great cathedral, or adding a touch of decoration to the smallest rowhouse or bungalow. A number of notable churches, large mansions, civic buildings, and other prominent buildings boast windows or ceilings by LaFarge, Tiffany, Connick, or one of many other, lesser-known, American masters, but stained or leaded glass also appears as a prominent feature in great numbers of modest houses built between the Civil War and the Great Depression.
Components of a leaded glass window. This Brief gives a short history of stained and leaded glass in America. It also surveys basic preservation and documentation issues facing owners of buildings with leaded glass. It addresses common causes of deterioration and presents repair, restoration, and protection options. It does not offer detailed advice on specific work treatments.
History[ edit ] Although forms of brass have been in use since prehistory ,  its true nature as a copper-zinc alloy was not understood until the post medieval period because the zinc vapor which reacted with copper to make brass was not recognised as a metal. Many have similar tin contents to contemporary bronze artefacts and it is possible that some copper-zinc alloys were accidental and perhaps not even distinguished from copper. There is good archaeological evidence for this process and crucibles used to produce brass by cementation have been found on Roman period sites including Xanten  and Nidda  in Germany , Lyon in France  and at a number of sites in Britain.
The fabric of these crucibles is porous, probably designed to prevent a buildup of pressure, and many have small holes in the lids which may be designed to release pressure  or to add additional zinc minerals near the end of the process. Dioscorides mentioned that zinc minerals were used for both the working and finishing of brass, perhaps suggesting secondary additions.
Dating to the late 40s and reclaimed from England, these magnificent Plan Drawers have been restored to their former glory by quintessential from English pine timbers with original handles and fittings, each drawer folds down with internal brass hooks.
Benin was an important empire in the history of Nigeria because it rose to international fame for its artworks Benin Bronze which were exported to different parts of Europe and the rest of the world. It was also the first Nigerian territory that rivaled any contemporary European power in terms of governance and function. Bronze casting in Edo was established in the 14th century by Oba Oguola. Going contrary to this attracted a death penalty. However, in , Oba Eweka II lifted the ban on the sale of bronze artworks to members of the public.
The ancient bronze casters of Benin served an important capacity for the royalty. They could be described as the royal photographers and historians who documented important images and events for the Oba of Benin. According to Benin oral tradition, the Kings were the center force in Benin Artworks and therefore, determined the kind of figures to be produced by the craftsmen.
Figures of these horse warriors were kept on ancestral altars. Thus, some of the Benin signature head bronze works were representations of the Portuguese sailors as a result of their activities and early contact with the people of Benin and also because they were buying the Benin Art. The Benin Bronze figures are a significant cultural heritage in Nigeria.
Antique Brass Identification
In June or according to some accounts , Max Hahn and his wife Emma were on a walk when they noticed a rock with wood protruding from its core. They decided to take the oddity home and later cracked it open with a hammer and a chisel. Ironically, what they found within seemed to be an archaic hammer of sorts. A team of archaeologists checked it, and as it turns out, the rock encasing the hammer was dated back more than million year; the hammer itself turned out to be more than million years old.
brass definition: 1. a bright yellow metal made from copper and zinc: 2. the group of brass instruments or players in a band or orchestra: 3. a thin piece of brass on the floor or wall in a church, with a picture or writing cut into it. Learn more.
If limited strictly to religious practices, an inventory of ceremonial and ritualistic objects remains incomplete, because these objects have played significant roles on solemn secular occasions, such as consecrations, enthronements, and coronations, which may be closely linked to the divine order, as in Hindu -, Buddhist-, and Christian -influenced cultures. Icons and symbols Constituting a most-significant category of cult objects are representations of a deity.
Though such representations are often depicted in the form of statues and images icons of divine or sacred beings, they may also be either figurative or symbolic , the meanings often being equivalent. In Tantrism an Indian esoteric , magical, and philosophical belief system centred on devotion to natural energy , for example, the sacred Sanskrit syllable Om —which is a transcendent word charged with cosmological order-of-the-universe symbolism—is identified with the feminine counterpart of the god.
In its written form, particularly on Tibetan banners thang-ka s , the word Om often corresponding with the feminine counterpart— Tara —of the patron of Tibet is considered to be eminently sacred, even more so, in some instances, than an anthropomorphic human-form divine effigy. Statues and painted images occur most frequently in religious iconography, as noted above. These are often viewed as the permanent embodiments of the deities they represent, whether they are located in sacred places of religious communities , such as temples , shrines, or chapels , or on domestic altars, which contain statues or icons of the divinities of prosperity and fertility, mother goddesses, household gods, saints, relics, the tablet of the ancestors in ancient China , and other similar domestic cult objects.
Many household cult objects are made from clay or terra-cotta and are sometimes multicoloured. The material of which major cult objects are composed is often explicitly defined and assumes a certain importance. If the statue is fashioned in wood, the choice of the wood acacia , sandal , or any other is symbolically important because it is considered auspicious. By the same token, the choice of stone is likewise important, depending on the region. If metal is chosen, it is one that is deemed precious e.
In the case of bronze statues and other cult objects, the composition is carefully defined and often corresponds to alloys to which symbolic values are attached. In addition to a proper and distinct form and material, the technique of fabricating and the procedural patterns of composing such objects are controlled by traditional rules that have become established rituals in many religions—sophisticated and not.
Vintage African Art Benin Tribe Brass/Bronze Bust Head of King/Oba Sculpture yqz For Sale
Most gold and silver wares, better known through literary accounts, were likely melted down Ward, pp. At times, echoing the forms of more ephemeral or less costly materials such as ceramics, metalwork from Iran and adjacent lands served a wide variety of utilitarian functions. These were nonetheless luxury wares that absorbed the creative energy of some of the best artists and reflected the main artistic trends and the tastes of successive dynasties.
Written sources are an important means of documenting this medium. In addition to literary works, primarily geographical texts in Arabic and Persian, which provide information on centers of production and sources of metal ores Allen, , pp. Iranian metalwork is therefore an important resource for understanding the art Iran in the Islamic period in particular and the history of Islamic art in general.
You may not think to look on the Internet for help in dating old photographs, but actually it’s the best place to go. A variety of websites offer tips and tools, and they have the great advantage of being able to provide visual aids.
Mesopotamia In the museum at Baghdad, in the British Museum , and in the University of Pennsylvania at Philadelphia are finely executed objects in beaten copper from the royal graves at Ur modern Tall al-Muqayyar in ancient Sumer. This relief illustrates the high level of art and technical skill attained by the Sumerians in the days of the 1st dynasty of Ur c. The malleability of unalloyed copper, which renders it too soft for weapons, is peculiarly valuable in the formation of vessels of every variety of form; and it has been put to this use in almost every age.
Copper domestic vessels were regularly made in Sumer during the 4th millennium bc and in Egypt a little later. Egypt From whatever source Egypt may have obtained its metalworking processes, Egyptian work at a remote period possesses an excellence that, in some respects, has never been surpassed. Throughout Egyptian history, the same smiths who worked in the precious metals worked also in copper and bronze. Nearly every fashionable Egyptian, man or woman, possessed a hand mirror of polished copper, bronze, or silver.
Copper pitchers and basins for hand washing at meals were placed in the tombs. An unusual example in the Metropolitan Museum of Art is plated with antimony to imitate silver, which was very rare in the Old Kingdom c. The basins and the bodies of the ewers were hammered from single sheets of copper. The spouts of the ewers were cast in molds and attached to the bodies by means of copper rivets or were simply inserted in place and crimped to the bodies by cold hammering.